Useful links to external resources
Below is a listing of sources outside ML&P that we believe provide helpful information, resources, and relevant data for those working on international intellectual property law and policy and access to medicines.
All the Basics on Patents and Access to Medicines
The Accesstomedicines.org site is the perfect introduction to all matters related to intellectual property and access to medicines. Even if you have never paid any attention to this issue you will enjoy browsing through this site.
The TRIPS Flexibilities Database
The TRIPS Flexibilities Database contains instances when authorities have invoked, planned to invoke, or have been asked to invoke a TRIPS flexibility for public health reasons, in particular to assure access to medicines.
The Lancet Commissions: Essential medicines for universal health coverage
The Lancet Commissions bring together experts to research and report on critical medical issues of the day. The commission on essential medicines looked at ways to pay for a basket of needed medicines, how to make medicines more affordable, how to ensure and promote quality, and how to develop new and missing medicines.
United Nations High-Level Panel on Access to Medicines
The UN High-Level Panel on Access to Medicines was established by Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon “to review and assess proposals and recommend solutions for remedying the policy incoherence between the justifiable rights of inventors, international human rights law, trade rules and public health in the context of health technologies.” The panel released its final report in September 2016.
WHO, WIPO, WTO Trilateral Cooperation on Public Health, IP and Trade
The Trilateral Cooperation is a collaboration of the three intergovernmental bodies producing factual reports for policy makers. It grew out of the WHO Global Strategy and Plan of Action, the WIPO Development Agenda, and the WTO Doha Declaration on TRIPS and Public Health.
Untangling the Web of Antiretroviral Price Reductions
For more than 20 years, the Médecins Sans Frontières Access Campaign's series "Untangling the Web" has provided regularly updated information on barriers to access to affordable HIV medicines, including patents, prices and availability.
WHO Model Lists of Essential Medicines
Updated every two years, the WHO Model Lists of Essential Medicines provide critical guidance to countries on the medicines needed for a functioning health system, based on the latest scientific evidence on efficacy, safety and cost effectiveness.
Intellectual Property Watch
Intellectual Property Watch was a journal investigating behind-the-scenes dynamics that influence IP policymaking at institutions such as the WHO and WIPO. It is not currently publishing but its past articles are still useful resources.
Knowledge Ecology International
KEI undertakes research, finds innovative solutions, and advocates for better ways to manage knowledge and technology. They have an extensive collection of data related to IP, including on access to medicines.
UNITAID: Landscapes and Technical Reports
UNITAID conducts in-depth research on market barriers to access to treatments for HIV, TB, malaria and co-infections. Technical work includes patent landscapes, technology and market landscapes, and forecasts.
World Trade Organization TRIPS Agreement
The Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) sets out minimum standards for the protection of several forms of IP that all WTO member states are required to implement. It also contains several important flexibilities.
WHO: Public health, intellectual property and trade
A portal to WHO’s work on the creation of incentives for R&D on medicines for developing countries and developing policy guidance and technical assistance on managing IP to meet health needs.
Access to Medicines Index
The Access to Medicines Index ranks pharmaceutical companies on their efforts to increase access to medicines worldwide. It measures commitment, transparency, performance and innovation across 7 technical areas. The index is updated every two years.
The concept of delinking R&D costs from prices is based on the premise that costs and risks associated with R&D should be rewarded, and incentives for R&D provided by means other than through the price of the product. If the R&D cost of new medicines did not have to be recouped through high prices, those medicines would be free of market exclusivity and could be made more widely available and more affordably priced through better competition.
Public Citizen: Global Access to Medicine Program
Public Citizen partners with other civil society groups and public agencies globally to forward use of measures that lower the costs of medicines. They also provide legal analysis and technical assistance.
Consultative Expert Working Group on R&D: Financing and Coordination
The CEWG was created to address a lack of research and development financing for treatments of diseases primarily affecting the developing world. The group examined proposals to incentivise and finance such R&D, and put forward recommendations.
The Commission on Intellectual Property Rights, Innovation and Public Health
The Commission on Intellectual Property Rights, Innovation and Public Health (CIPIH) was established by the 2003 World Health Assembly and produced the first WHO-mandated report on the connection between intellectual property rights and innovation on and access to affordable diagnostics, vaccines and medicines.
Infojustice is a project of academics in the US and Brazil to blog about and gather resources related to international intellectual property and the public interest. It is hosted by the American University Program on Information Justice and Intellectual Property.
World Bank: Procurement of Medicines and Supplies for HIV/AIDS
The World Bank’s publication “Battling HIV/AIDS: A Decision Maker’s Guide to the Procurement of Medicines and Related Supplies” is a 2004 document outlining practical solutions for implementing agencies to access antiretroviral medicines. It was a major step forward at a time when many countries were struggling to access high-priced but life-saving treatments for HIV.
SpicyIP is a blog devoted to covering intellectual property and innovation law and policy in India. It posts analyses of complex IP issues, news pieces on ongoing developments, weekly digests and other related information.