Useful Links

External resources, including databases, legal texts, relevant organizations and other sources of IP & health information.

All the Basics on Patents and Access to Medicines

The site is the perfect introduction to all matters related to intellectual property and access to medicines. Even if you have never paid any attention to this issue you will enjoy browsing through this site.

Venetian Patent Statute 1474

MedsPaL Patent and Licensing Database

MedsPaL provides information on the patent and licensing status of selected HIV, hepatitis C and tuberculosis medicines in low- and middle-income countries. It is a project of the Medicines Patent Pool.

Mailboxes for countries at the United Nations in Geneva

The TRIPS Flexibilities Database

The TRIPS Flexibilities Database contains instances when authorities have invoked, planned to invoke, or have been asked to invoke a TRIPS flexibility for public health reasons, in particular to assure access to medicines.

The Lancet Commissions: Essential medicines for universal health coverage

The Lancet Commissions bring together experts to research and report on critical medical issues of the day. The commission on essential medicines looked at ways to pay for a basket of needed medicines, how to make medicines more affordable, how to ensure and promote quality, and how to develop new and missing medicines.

Logo of UN High-Level Panel on Access to Medicines.

 United Nations High-Level Panel on Access to Medicines

The UN High-Level Panel on Access to Medicines was established by Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon “to review and assess proposals and recommend solutions for remedying the policy incoherence between the justifiable rights of inventors, international human rights law, trade rules and public health in the context of health technologies.” The panel released its report in September 2016.

Heads of WHO, WIPO and WTO at an event on medical innovation and IP in 2013 by Emmanuel Berrod

WHO, WIPO, WTO Trilateral Cooperation on Public Health, IP and Trade

The Trilateral Cooperation is a collaboration of the three intergovernmental bodies producing factual reports for policy makers. It grew out of the WHO Global Strategy and Plan of Action, the WIPO Development Agenda, and the WTO Doha Declaration on TRIPS and Public Health. Link goes to the latest report from the Cooperation.

Blood samples by the Pan American Health Organization

Untangling the Web of Antiretroviral Price Reductions

Currently in its 18th Edition, Untangling the Web provides regularly updated information on barriers to access to affordable HIV medicines, including patents, prices and availability.

WIPO lobby by Ville Oksanen

Intellectual Property Watch

Intellectual Property Watch is a journal investigating behind-the-scenes dynamics that influence IP policymaking at institutions such as the WHO and WIPO. It is on pause but its past articles are still useful resources.

Logo of the World Health Organization, taken by the US Mission in Geneva

Health Policy Watch

Health Policy Watch is a digital platform for professional, independent reporting on the top global health policy debates, trends and news from Geneva and beyond.

James Love, Director of KEI, by Gloria for UAEM

Knowledge Ecology International

KEI undertakes research, finds innovative solutions, and advocates for better ways to manage knowledge and technology. They have an extensive collection of data related to IP, including on access to medicines.

Philippe Duneton, Deputy Director at UNITAID by Jean-Marc Ferré

UNITAID Landscapes and Technical Reports

UNITAID conducts in-depth research on market barriers to access to treatments for HIV, TB, malaria and co-infections. Technical work includes patent landscapes, technology and market landscapes, and forecasts.

WTO headquarters in Geneva by E. Murray

World Trade Organization TRIPS Agreement

The Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) sets out minimum standards for the protection of several forms of IP that all WTO member states are required to implement. It also contains several important flexibilities.

WHO Headquarters in Geneva by Yann Forget

WHO Public health, innovation, intellectual property and trade

PHI is the WHO’s department responsible for facilitating the creation of incentives for R&D on medicines for developing countries and developing policy guidance and technical assistance on managing IP to meet health needs.

Avian flu testing lab in Hanoi, Vietnam by Simone D. McCourtie

Consultative Expert Working Group on R&D: Financing and Coordination

The CEWG was created to address a lack of research and development financing for treatments of diseases primarily affecting the developing world. The group examined proposals to incentivise and finance such R&D, and put forward recommendations.

WHO flag by Eric Bridiers

WHO Model Lists of Essential Medicines

Updated every two years, the WHO Model Lists of Essential Medicines provide critical guidance to countries on the medicines needed for a functioning health system, based on the latest scientific evidence on efficacy, safety and cost effectiveness.

The concept of delinking R&D costs from prices is based on the premise that costs and risks associated with R&D should be rewarded, and incentives for R&D provided by means other than through the price of the product. If the R&D cost of new medicines did not have to be recouped through high prices, those medicines would be free of market exclusivity and could be made more widely available and more affordably priced through better competition.

Patent Oppositions

A project of the Médecins Sans Frontières Access Campaign, this is a tool that supports those interested in filing patent oppositions or wishing to learn where oppositions have been filed.

Medicines by Justin Ling

Access to Medicines Index

The Access to Medicines Index ranks pharmaceutical companies on their efforts to increase access to medicines worldwide. It measures commitment, transparency, performance and innovation across 7 technical areas. The index is updated every two years.

Generic medicine by Sage Ross

The Commission on Intellectual Property Rights, Innovation and Public Health

The Commission on Intellectual Property Rights, Innovation and Public Health (CIPIH) was established by the 2003 World Health Assembly and produced the first WHO-mandated report on the connection between intellectual property rights and innovation on and access to affordable diagnostics, vaccines and medicines.

Crispin Hughes

Public Citizen: Global Access to Medicine Program

Public Citizen partners with other civil society groups and public agencies globally to forward use of measures that lower the costs of medicines. They also provide legal analysis and technical assistance.

Pharmacy by PAHO


Infojustice is a project of academics in the US and Brazil to blog about and gather resources related to international intellectual property and the public interest. It is hosted by the American University Program on Information Justice and Intellectual Property.

World Bank: Procurement of Medicines and Supplies for HIV/AIDS

The World Bank’s publication “Battling HIV/AIDS: A Decision Maker’s Guide to the Procurement of Medicines and Related Supplies” is a 2004 document outlining practical solutions for implementing agencies to access antiretroviral medicines. It was a major step forward at a time when many countries were struggling to access high-priced but life-saving treatments for HIV.

Picture by Ellen ‘t Hoen


SpicyIP is a blog devoted to covering intellectual property and innovation law and policy in India. It posts analyses of complex IP issues, news pieces on ongoing developments, weekly digests and other related information.

WTO reporting on TRIPS and public health

The WTO’s regularly updated list of resources on issues relating to the TRIPS Agreement and public health.